It initially acted as the producer and distributor of ORI (Oeang Republik Indonesia/Money of the Republic of Indonesia), a currency issued by the Republican Government which was the predecessor of Rupiah. Despite this, foreign money issued through the Japanese occupation and by Dutch authorities was still in circulation, and the simplicity of the ORI made its counterfeiting comparatively straightforward, worsening issues. Between 1949 and 1960, Indonesia experienced a number of financial disruptions.

Afghanistan’s new woes: Dwindling economy,

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